3月29日,《华尔街日报》报道称,调查人员得出初步结论,在埃塞俄比亚航空公司坠机事件中,波音737
Max的预防失速系统失灵。

《金融时报》称,美国政府已下令对联邦航空管理局(Federal Aviation
Administration,FAA)审批波音737 MAX 8机型的情况开展调查。

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The US government has ordered a review into the way in which the
country’s aviation regulator approved the Boeing 737 Max 8 aircraft
after two crashes in five months.

负责调查埃塞俄比亚航空公司坠机事件的官员根据黑匣子数据,达成初步共识,即失事的波音737MAX客机坠毁前,客机机动特性增强系统MCAS系统已自动启动。Officials
investigating the fatal crash of a Boeing Co. 737 MAX in Ethiopia have
reached a preliminary conclusion that a suspect flight-control feature
automatically activated before the plane nose-dived into the ground,
according to people briefed on the matter, the first findings based on
data retrieved from the flight’s black boxes.

美国波音公司总裁丹尼斯•米伦伯格18日晚发表公开信说,该公司正在采取行动,确保波音737
MAX系列飞机的安全性。这是米伦伯格在埃塞俄比亚航空公司飞机失事后的首次公开表态。

本周四,4名知情人士告诉路透社称,美国安全调查人员已经调查了埃塞俄比亚航空公司302航班上的“黑匣子”数据。美国官员说,预计下周将公布一份初步报告。U.S.
safety investigators have reviewed data from the “black boxes” that were
aboard Ethiopian Airlines Flight 302, four people briefed on the
investigation told Reuters on Thursday. A preliminary report is expected
as early as next week, the U.S. officials said.

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所谓“黑匣子”,是指“飞行数据记录器”和“驾驶舱语音记录器”,是飞机专用的电子记录设备。空难发生后,对两个黑匣子中记录数据的分析和解读,往往能对查明空难原因起到关键作用。

米伦伯格说,对埃塞俄比亚航空公司空难事故的调查,以及对失事飞机驾驶舱语音记录器和飞行数据记录器数据的分析正在全面、快速展开,而埃塞俄比亚事故调查局将决定何时,以及如何用适当方式发布更多细节。

埃塞俄比亚交通部一名发言人17号表示,黑匣子里的数据恢复得非常成功,数据分析结果显示,埃塞航空的这起空难跟去年印尼狮航的空难情况相同,目前来看两起坠机有“明显的相似之处”。

米伦伯格还在社交媒体表示:安全是波音公司的核心,确保安全可靠的飞行是我们对每个人的绝对承诺。

据路透社报道,去10月份在印度尼西亚737
MAX坠机事件中,调查人员也将关注点集中在这个名叫MCAS的预防失速系统上了。Investigators
of a deadly 737 MAX crash in Indonesia in October have also focused on
the new anti-stall system, called MCAS.

//

MCAS究竟是啥?

交通部调查波音737 MAX 8认证过程

中国民航大学飞行模拟器工程师龚政在微信公众号科普中国的一篇文章中介绍称:

//

波音737-MAX飞机的基本设计还延续了1967年首飞的波音737-100上的很多特点,其中最主要的一点是机身的尺寸和布局。

据《金融时报》报道,美国交通部周二宣布,部长赵小兰(Elaine
Chao)要求独立总监察长加尔文•斯考维尔(Calvin
Scovel)对此型飞机的认证过程进行审核。

在1960年代设计波音737的时候,出于方便发动机维护和适应恶劣起降条件的考虑,波音的工程师将飞机的起落架设计的较为短小。这样飞机维修人员就可以在不用梯子的情况下,直接维护位于机翼下方的发动机。

Elaine Chao, the transport secretary, has asked Calvin Scovel, the
independent inspector general, to carry out an audit of the
certification process for the troubled jet, her department announced on
Tuesday.

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在致斯考维尔的一份备忘录中,赵小兰称,“安全是交通部的首要任务”,需要进行调查,“以帮助交通部做决策时了解情况,协助FAA真正有效落实其安全程序”。

波音737-100,注意它细长的发动机 图片来源:维基百科

In a memo to Calvin Scovel, the inspector general, Ms Chao said “safety
is the top priority of the department” and an audit was needed “to help
inform the department’s decision making and the public’s understanding,
and to assist the FAA in ensuring that its safety procedures are
implemented effectively”.

但在波音737出现后的50年中,航空发动机的直径越来越大。波音737-MAX系列不得不将发动机的安装位置向机翼的前方移动,并尽可能升高。

备忘录还表示,斯考维尔被要求编制一份“使波音737 MAX
8机型获得认证的客观、详尽的事实记录”。

这样的改动造成了一个过去三代737飞机从未出现过的新问题——新的发动机安装位置会导致飞机在大攻角飞行的状态下进一步自动向上抬头,导致飞机进入失速状态。

Mr Scovel would be required to complile “an objective and detailed
factual history of the activities that resulted in the certification of
the Boeing 737 Max 8 aircraft”, according to the memo.

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波音737-MAX家族,注意它的发动机粗了很多 图片来源:波音

《华尔街日报》援引一位消息人士称,华盛顿一个大陪审团已经向参与开发737
MAX飞机的不止一人发出传票。

为解决这一问题,波音在737-MAX系列上新增了一个名为MCAS的系统,在必要的时候实现飞机“自动低头”的功能。

The Wall Street Journal, citing unnamed sources, first reported that a
grand jury in Washington had issued a subpoena to at least one person
involved in the development of the 737 Max.

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此外,交通部监察长进行了第二项调查,重点是西雅图地区的两家FAA办公室,一家负责机型认证,另一家负责培训管理。

MCAS系统的原理 图片来源:The Air Current / Jon Ostrower

The Journal also said a second inquiry by the Transportation
Department’s inspector general is focused on the Seattle-area office of
the FAA charged with certifying aircraft as well as an office that
mandates training requirements.

两年前,欧美就知道MCAS有缺陷

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周五,路透社引用某文件称,至少在发生印尼坠机事故的两年前,美国和欧洲的监管人员就已经知道,在出现最近两起事故的类似情况时,通过常规方式控制737
MAX机头角度并不奏效。U.S. and European regulators knew at least two
years before the Indonesian crash that the usual method for controlling
the 737 MAX’s nose angle might not work in conditions similar to those
in two recent disasters, Reuters reported on Friday, citing a document.

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欧洲航空航天局将该飞机认证为安全,部分原因在于,EASA称,额外的程序和培训将“清楚地向飞行员解释”在“不寻常”的情况下,飞行员需要通过操作很少使用的手动轮去控制或“微调”飞机角度。The
European Aviation and Space Agency certified the plane as safe in part
because it said additional procedures and training would “clearly
explain” to pilots the “unusual” situations in which they would need to
manipulate a rarely used manual wheel to control, or “trim,” the plane’s
angle.

波音737MAX系列的安全认证是波音自己做的

然而,在路透社看到的一本美国航空的飞行手册副本上,那些情况并没有被列入其中。波音拒绝对EASA的文件做出评论。Those
situations, however, were not listed in the flight manual, according to
a copy from American Airlines seen by Reuters. Boeing declined to
comment on the EASA document.

//

据《西雅图时报》报道,由于MCAS被认定只会在远超出正常飞行范围的极端情况下激活,波音决定737飞行员不需要对系统进行额外培训,甚至不需要了解它,飞行手册中也没有涉及。Since
MCAS was supposed to activate only in extreme circumstances far outside
the normal flight envelope, Boeing decided that 737 pilots needed no
extra training on the system — and indeed that they didn’t even need to
know about it. It was not mentioned in their flight manuals.

美国《西雅图时报》3月17日发表了一篇文章,题为《有缺陷的分析,失败的监管:波音和美国联邦航空局如何认证可疑的737
MAX飞行控制系统》。

美国航空公司盟军飞行员协会发言人Dennis Tajer表示,他从旧的737
NG机型驾驶舱过渡到新的737
MAX的培训,只在iPad上进行了一个多小时的训练课程,没有进行模拟训练。Dennis
Tajer, a spokesman for the Allied Pilots Association at American
Airlines, said his training on moving from the old 737 NG model cockpit
to the new 737 MAX consisted of little more than a one-hour session on
an iPad, with no simulator training.

报道称“由于缺乏资金和资源,美国联邦航空管理局多年来不断授予波音权力,让其自证飞机的安全性”。

波音为什么要这么做?

The FAA, citing lack of funding and resources, has over the years
delegated increasing authority to Boeing totake on more of the work of
certifying the safety of its own airplanes.

据《西雅图时报》报道,让飞行员进行MAX机型的过渡训练达到最小化,是为波音客户节约成本的一项重要举措,也是该飞机的主要卖点,该飞机已经累计获得了5000个订单。Minimizing
MAX pilot transition training was an important cost saving for Boeing’s
airline customers, a key selling point for the jet, which has racked up
more than 5,000 orders.

2015年,为了追赶竞争对手空客的进度,FAA管理层不断敦促安全工程团队迅速完成授权认证,将安全认证工作委托给波音自己的团队,缩减审查工作。

编辑:王瑜 胡雨濛

As Boeing hustled in 2015 to catch up to Airbus and certify its new 737
MAX, Federal Aviation Administration managers pushed the agency’s safety
engineers to delegate safety assessments to Boeing itself, and to
speedily approve the resulting analysis.

实习生:戚琦

但波音公司向FAA提交的关于MAX系列机型新飞行控制系统的原始安全分析报告,存在几个关键缺陷。

精彩推荐

But the original safety analysis that Boeing delivered to the FAA for a
new flight control system on the MAX had several crucial flaws.

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该飞行控制系统——机动特性增强系统,目前正在接受审查。在不到五个月的时间里,这一机型发生了两起坠机事故,这导致FAA在3月13日下令禁飞波音737
MAX。

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That flight control system, called MCAS (Maneuvering Characteristics
Augmentation System), is now under scrutiny after two crashes of the jet
in less than five months resulted in Wednesday’s FAA order to ground the
plane.

为救人东航放油39吨备降!网友却都在疑惑这个问题……

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《西雅图时报》证实,这份关于MCAS的“系统安全分析”的相关细节是由直接参与评估或熟悉这份文件的现任和前任工程师披露的。

澳门新葡亰官网app,从动漫里走出的“樱花教室” ,网友:这么美,安心学习有点难

Current and former engineers directly involved with the evaluations or
familiar with the document shared details of Boeing’s “System Safety
Analysis” of MCAS, which The Seattle Times confirmed.

核心解读外媒说

由于MCAS被认定只会在远超出正常飞行范围的极端情况下激活,波音决定737飞行员不需要对系统进行额外培训,甚至不需要了解它,飞行手册中也没有涉及。

双语新闻看热点

Since MCAS was supposed to activate only in extreme circumstances far
outside the normal flight envelope, Boeing decided that 737 pilots
needed no extra training on the system — and indeed that they didn’t
even need to know about it. It was not mentioned in their flight
manuals.

40年40人图图是道

//

觉得好看,请点”在看”!

737 MAX机型飞行员仅用iPad培训

//

美国航空公司盟军飞行员协会发言人Dennis Tajer表示,他从旧的737
NG机型驾驶舱过渡到新的737
MAX的培训,包括在iPad上参与1小时的课程,而不需要进行模拟训练。

Dennis Tajer, a spokesman for the Allied Pilots Association at American
Airlines, said his training on moving from the old 737 NG model cockpit
to the new 737 MAX consisted of little more than a one-hour session on
an iPad, with no simulator training.

让飞行员进行MAX机型的过渡训练达到最小化,是为波音客户节约成本的一项重要举措,也是该飞机的主要卖点,该飞机已经累计获得了5000个订单。

Minimizing MAX pilot transition training was an important cost saving
for Boeing’s airline customers, a key selling point for the jet, which
has racked up more than 5,000 orders.

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特朗普已提名FAA新局长

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《金融时报》表示,目前,美国总统特朗普已提名前飞行员、达美航空高管Stephen
Dickson担任FAA正式局长。该提名须通过参议院确认。

Donald Trump, the US president, moved to end that situation on Tuesday,
nominating Stephen Dickson, a former pilot and executive at Delta Air
Lines, to be the agency’s permanent administrator. Mr Dickson will need
to be confirmed in the Senate before he can take the role.

加拿大本周也表示,将启动对FAA认证MAX机型的审查,因为加拿大接受FAA对产自美国的新机型做出的认证。加拿大交通部门称,将对波音的软件更新作出自己的认证,即使FAA已经对此有了认证。

Canada, which accepts FAA certifications for new aircraft made in the
US, said earlier this week it would review its own validation of the Max
certification by the FAA. The country’s transport ministry has also said
it will conduct its own checks on the software update once it is
released.

周二,欧盟航空安全机构也表示将测试软件更新,但尚未表示是否会对MAX的初步批准进行审查。

On Tuesday, the EU’s aviation safety agency also said it would test the
software updates, though it has not said whether it will undertake a
review into the Max’s initial approval.

中国日报(chinadailywx)综合外媒报道

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